Sudan Food and Nutrition Security Resilience Program, Baseline Report, 2021 – Sudan



FAO’s Food and Nutrition Security Resilience Program (FNS-REPRO) is a four-year, $ 28 million program funded by the Government of the Netherlands that directly contributes to the operationalization of the Security Council United Nations 2417 by addressing the “cause and effect” relationships between conflict and food insecurity in the Republic of South Sudan, the Republic of the Sudan (Darfur) and Somaliland. The program, which became operational in October 2019, is designed to foster large-scale peace and food security through a multi-year approach based on livelihoods and resilience. The FNS-REPRO component in Sudan focuses on supporting the production and value chain of gum arabic. The program is implemented in the states of North and East Darfur.

Study approach

This report serves as a reference for the FNS-REPRO project for Sudan. The objective of this study is twofold. The first is to collect baseline values ​​for the identified project indicators, which will be monitored over time and used to establish project impact. The second is to identify and document lessons learned that will facilitate the continued realignment of the current project’s theory of change and help define and design future similar food security projects in Sudan as well as in other parts of the world. with similar contexts. Overall, the study will use a panel design with intervention and comparisons.

The study seeks to answer the following broad questions:

  1. To what extent has the Resilience Capacity Index (ICR) of households in the study area changed because of the FNS-REPRO project?

  2. To what extent did household income in the study area change from the start of the FNS-REPRO project until the end of the project?

  3. To what extent has the food security status of households in the study area changed from the start of the FNS-REPRO project until the end of the project?

  4. Did the FNS-REPRO project support the production of gum arabic at the household level in the project area?

To answer the research questions, a baseline study was designed and data was collected from both intervention and non-intervention areas in North and East Darfur states. Data were collected from a total of 662 households, 391 beneficiary / treatment households and 271 control / non-beneficiary households. Data collection took place in September 2020. Data was collected by staff from the State Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources (SMoAAR) in North Darfur and the State Ministry of Production and Economic Resources (SMoPER) in East Darfur State, as well as Agricultural Planning. Units in collaboration with FAO and the Saharan Organization for Development. Staff were trained over three days in mobile data collection techniques (implemented using KoBo Collect) and the basics of the Resilience Index Measurement and Analysis (RIMA) methodology. FAO.

Main conclusions

  • The average Resilience Capacity Index (ICR) is estimated at 56. Male-headed households (ICR = 57) are more resilient than female-headed households (ICR = 51.7). Households in El Daein (RCI = 65.4) and Rural El Fasher (RCI = 65.8) have the highest resilience capacity, while households in Tweisha (RCI = 50.2) have the highest low.

  • Asset ownership (AST) and access to social safety nets (SSN) contribute the most to the observed resilience capacity.

  • The three main sources of household income in the study area are agriculture (excluding gum arabic) (77 percent), agricultural labor (43 percent) and unskilled labor. (25 percent). Households headed by men are more dependent on income from crop production, agricultural labor and animal husbandry, while households headed by women are more dependent on crop production, agricultural labor and trade or petty trading.

  • About 22.7 percent of households would have at least one household member involved in the production of gum arabic in the past 12 months and most of these households were in North Darfur. Of those households involved in the production of gum arabic, 10 percent were households headed by women. The median household land under Hashab or Acacia trees is 10 mukhamas. Of the households involved in the production of gum arabic, 44 percent combined the production of gum arabic with other crops. About 21 percent of households have viewed market information for gum arabic in the past 12 months. Over 94 percent of households in the project area involved in gum arabic production use the Sonki tool to tap gum arabic and the same proportion do not use protective equipment when tapping. All the households surveyed in the project area sell the gum arabic produced as independent traders; none of these households sell through registered cooperative groups.

  • About 68 percent of households have an acceptable food consumption score (FCS). There is a statistically significant difference in the FCS by gender of the household head – male-headed households have a higher FCS. Regarding specific foods consumed in the past seven days, oils and fats, grains, spices, and milk are consumed frequently, at least four days a week. Proteins from meat, eggs and legumes are the least consumed by households.

  • Wealth index, farm asset index, tropical livestock unit operation, size of cultivated land during summer, and household head education (years) were found to be positively associated with household food security. The main shock that compromises food security in the survey area is the decline in household income.

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