Everything you need to know: UAE’s five Covid vaccines explained – News

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Here’s a look at the science behind each vaccine and other details.

The Ministry of Health and Prevention has approved the emergency use of Moderna’s Covid-19 vaccine in the United Arab Emirates, making it the fifth vaccine authorized for use in the fight against the pandemic. The decision was made after the completion of clinical trials and an evaluation, as well as approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

Here’s a look at the science behind each vaccine and other details:

Moderna

> Date of approval in the United Arab Emirates: July 4, 2021

> Efficacy rate: around 94% to prevent symptomatic infections

> Number of doses needed: Two

> Time difference between shots: 4 weeks

> Type of vaccine: mRNA

> Common side effects: chills, headache, pain, fatigue and / or redness and swelling at the injection site, which usually go away within a day or two.

> Storage: it can be stored at normal freezing temperature and can be used within 30 days of thawing.

Pfizer-BioNTech

> Date of approval in the United Arab Emirates: December 22, 2020

> Efficacy rate: up to 95% efficiency in preventing symptomatic diseases

> Number of doses needed: Two

> Time difference between doses: 3 weeks between doses

> Common side effects: chills, headache, pain, fatigue and / or redness and swelling at the injection site, which usually go away within a day or two after rest, hydration, and medication.

> Type of vaccine: mRNA

Storage: Pfizer vaccine requires an ultra-cold freezer and is only good for five days after thawing.

> How do mRNA vaccines work?

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a relatively new technology that has been used to make a vaccine against Covid-19. According to Yale Medicine, unlike vaccines that put a weakened or inactivated disease germ into the body, the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna mRNA vaccines deliver a small piece of the Sars-CoV-2 virus genetic code to host cells in the body, essentially giving those cells instructions to make spike protein copies. The tips penetrate and infect host cells. These proteins then stimulate an immune response, producing antibodies and developing memory cells that will recognize and respond if the body is infected with the actual virus.

Does it work well on viral mutations?

Two studies carried out in early May of this year on actual use of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine suggest strong protection against serious disease or death of the Alpha variant (first detected in the UK) and the Beta variant (identified for first time in South Africa). In the case of the Delta variant (first observed in India), two studies reported by Public Health England have shown that full vaccination (after two doses) is 88% effective against symptomatic disease and 96% against l ‘hospitalization.

Oxford-AstraZeneca

> Date of approval in the United Arab Emirates: January 2021

> Efficiency rate: 85%

> Number of doses needed: Two

> Time difference between doses: 4 to 12 weeks apart

> Common side effects: tenderness, pain, warmth, redness, itching, swelling or bruising at the injection site, which usually goes away within a day or two.

> Storage: It can be stored, transported and handled under normal refrigeration conditions for at least six months.

> How does it work?

The AstraZeneca vaccine is made from a weakened version of a cold virus (known as adenovirus) from chimpanzees. It has been modified to contain genetic material shared by the coronavirus, although it cannot cause illness. Once injected, it teaches the body’s immune system how to fight off the real virus.

> How does it work on the variants?

According to a medical article published in early February, two doses of the AstraZeneca vaccine are 74.6% effective against the Alpha variant. However, the vaccine does not protect as much against mild and moderate cases in people infected with the beta variant, prompting South Africa to discontinue use of the vaccine and switch to Johnson & Johnson and Pfizer-BioNTech. . In the case of the Delta variant, two recent studies show that a full vaccination after two doses is 60% effective against symptomatic disease and 93% against hospitalization.

Sputnik V

> Date of approval in the United Arab Emirates: January 21, 2021

> Efficiency rate: 91.4%

> Number of doses needed: Two

> Time difference between doses: 21 days up to three months

> Storage: The vaccine can be stored at a temperature of 2 to 8 degrees Celsius.

> How does it work?

Sputnik V is based on an adenoviral vector platform. Adenoviruses are a type of virus associated with the common cold and other illnesses. They serve as a delivery vehicle for DNA instructions to produce the Sars-CoV-2 virus spike protein in the body. This then triggers the production of antibodies against this spike protein, preparing the immune system for potential infection.

Each of the two doses uses a different type of adenovirus: a first dose with type-26 (Ad26), then a booster dose with type-5 (Ad5). The purpose of using two different types is to reduce the possibility that the body will develop antibodies to adenovirus after the first dose, which could make the second dose ineffective. Among the main Covid vaccines in development to date, only Sputnik V uses this approach. Others, like the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine, use the same material for both doses.

> How does it work on viral mutations?

According to a recent article, Understanding the Covid-19 Variants of Concern, Sputnik V effectively protects against viruses with spike in the Alpha variant, but it is less effective against the Beta variant. Even though the developers of the vaccine claim that it is around 90% effective against the Delta variant, medical journals have yet to publish their results on this.

Sinopharm

> Date of approval in the United Arab Emirates: December 9, 2020

> Efficacy rate: 86% efficiency against Covid-19 infection

> Number of doses needed: Two

> Time difference between doses: 21 to 28 days apart

> Common side effects: Like other vaccines, the side effects of Sinopharm include flu like illness, headache, fatigue, and injection site reaction.

> Storage: This vaccine can be stored in its original packaging in the refrigerator at +2 to +8 ° C.

> How does it work?

The Sinopharm vaccine contains an inactivated Sars-CoV-2 virus that has been treated with a chemical called beta-propiolactone. This chemical binds to the genetic material of the virus and prevents it from replicating and causing Covid-19.

When a person receives the vaccine, their body’s immune system identifies the inactivated virus as foreign and makes antibodies against it. If the vaccinated person subsequently comes into contact with Sars-CoV-2, their immune system triggers an immune response against it.

> How does it work on the variants?

The World Health Organization indicates on its website that this vaccine has not yet been evaluated in the context of the circulation of generalized variants of concern. According to the article on Understanding Covid-19 Variants of Concern, Sinopharm triggered an immune response against the beta variant. However, there is not a lot of data available on its effectiveness on the other two variants: Alpha and Delta.

‘THE BEST VACCINE’

Even though every Covid-19 vaccine is unique, the best vaccine is the one that’s in your arm. If you haven’t taken the vaccine yet, medical experts recommend getting one to gain herd immunity. All vaccines authorized in the United Arab Emirates are effective in preventing you from serious infection with Sars-Cov-2.

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Suneeti Ahuja Kohli

Suneeti Ahuja-Kohli has been in Dubai long enough to call it her spiritual home. She loves to travel but is considering moving to Koi Samui, Thailand, to eventually spend her years at sunset by the sea. For now, she writes frequently on personal finance, retirement planning, news and articles on business, health and almost anything assigned to it by its editor. His stays can be followed on instagram (suneetiahujakohli), news and opinions on Twitter @suneetiahuja, and for the rest, Facebook account.



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